Laryngeal Movements During Inspiratory Muscle Training In Healthy Subjects

“Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been used to treat patients with exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (VCD); the theoretical basis being the close relationship between the diaphragm and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, which is the main abductor of the larynx. Before launching a treatment protocol in patients with VCD, we aimed to substantiate this theory by performing laryngoscopy in healthy subjects during standardized IMT programs.”


“IMT can produce laryngeal abduction in healthy subjects, and training programs may conceivably contribute positively in patients suffering from laryngeal adduction during exercise. Individual response patterns varied between subjects and individualized programs seem crucial for effect. Use of high resistances seemed to be counterproductive.”

Therefore POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training:

  • May affect the intrinsic laryngeal muscles which control the action of the larynx

Read Laryngeal movements during inspiratory muscle training in healthy subjects >

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

‘Breathing Training Improves Sleep And Cardiovascular Health In Obstructive Sleep Apnea’

“Unfortunately, the gold-standard of treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), has discouraging compliance rates. Here, we report on inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) as a potential new treatment for OSA.”


“Results support inspiratory muscle strength training as a treatment that can improve the cardiovascular and sleep quality parameters in individuals with mild-moderate OSA.”

Read Breathing training improves sleep and cardiovascular health in Obstructive Sleep Apnea >

Measurement Validity Of KH1 During Breathing Task In Patients With COPD

This paper studies the validity of the POWERbreathe KH1 – a recently introduced, handheld, electronic loading device. It looks at how well it provides automatically processed information on external inspiratory work, power and breathing pattern during loaded breathing tasks in patients with COPD.

Intervention: POWERbreathe KH1


“The handheld device provides automatically processed and valid estimates of physical units of energy during loaded breathing tasks. This enables health care providers to quantify the load on inspiratory muscles during these tests in daily clinical practice.”

Measurement validity of an electronic inspiratory loading device during a loaded breathing task in patients with COPD >

Acute Effects Of Different Inspiratory Resistive Loading On Heart Rate Variability In Healthy Elderly Patients

“The cardiovascular system is noticeably affected by respiration. However, whether different inspiratory resistive loading intensities can influence autonomic heart rate (HR) modulation remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate HR modulation at three different inspiratory resistive loading intensities in healthy elderly men.”


“Results suggest that lower inspiratory efforts produce higher heart rate variability. These findings represent important clinical applications because low respiratory muscle training intensities can produce greater parasympathetic heart rate modulation in this population. Thus, we should choose the most appropriate load for achieving the most beneficial autonomic effects, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular event and morbidity incidence.”

Read Acute effects of different inspiratory resistive loading on heart rate variability in healthy elderly patients >

IMT Protocol For Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (IMTCO study)

“Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been applied during pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unclear if the addition of IMT to a general exercise training programme leads to additional clinically relevant improvements in patients with COPD.

This randomised controlled trial will investigate whether the addition of IMT to a general exercise training programme improves 6 min walking distance, health-related quality of life, daily physical activity and inspiratory muscle function in patients with COPD with inspiratory muscle weakness.”

Go to Inspiratory muscle training protocol for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (IMTCO study): a multicentre randomised controlled trial >

Respiratory Muscle Specific Warm-Up And Elite Swimming Performance

“Inspiratory muscle training has been shown to improve performance in elite swimmers, when used as part of routine training, but its use as a respiratory warm-up has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) as a respiratory muscle warm-up in a randomised controlled cross-over trial.”


“Using IME combined with a standard swimming warm-up significantly improves 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers.”

Read Respiratory muscle specific warm-up and elite swimming performance >

The Impact Of Swimming Speed On Respiratory Muscle Fatigue During Front Crawl Swimming

“The Critical velocity (Vcrit) represents a holistic swimming fatigue threshold and critical stroke rate is thought to coincide with Vcrit. Whether Vcrit, and in-turn critical stroke rate, also represent an inspiratory muscle fatigue threshold is not known.”


“The study provided data demonstrating that inspiratory muscle fatigue is correlated with relative but not absolute front crawl swimming velocity, and stroke rate. Whilst this finding is obvious and to be expected, the novel aspect is that the study was able to determine the relative velocity associated with the development of inspiratory muscle fatigue. Specifically, inspiratory muscle fatigue occurred when swimming at (in some) and above (in all) Vcrit and when stroke rate was at (in some) or above (in all) 92% of critical stroke rate in both male and female adolescent swimmers.”

Read The impact of swimming speed on respiratory muscle fatigue during front crawl swimming: a role for critical velocity? >

Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Performance in Athletes: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses

“The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to determine if respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves sport performance and respiratory muscle strength and endurance.”


“Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) can improve sport performance. Closer attention to matching the ventilatory demands of RMT to those required during athletic competition and more aggressive progression of training intensity may show greater improvements in future studies.”

Read Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Performance in Athletes: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses >

Respiratory Muscle Activity During Simultaneous Stationary Cycling and IMT

“The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of IMT on respiratory muscle EMG-activity during stationary cycling in the upright and drops postures as compared to IMT performed alone.”


“These results support our hypothesis in that IMT while cycling increases respiratory EMG activity to a significantly greater extent than performing IMT solely at rest, suggesting that the combination of IMT and cycling may provide an additive training effect.”

Read Respiratory Muscle Activity During Simultaneous Stationary Cycling and Inspiratory Muscle Training >