Respiratory-Related Limitations In Physically Demanding Occupations

“Respiratory muscle work limits high-intensity exercise tolerance in healthy human beings… In an occupational setting, heavy loads are routinely carried upon the trunk in the form of body armour, backpacks, and/or compressed air cylinders by military, emergency service, and mountain rescue personnel. This personal and respiratory protective equipment impairs respiratory muscle function and increases respiratory muscle work.”


“An argument is presented that the unique respiratory challenges encountered in some occupational settings require further research, since these may affect the operational effectiveness and the health and safety of personnel working in physically demanding occupations.”

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Four Weeks of Inspiratory Muscle Training Improves Self-Paced Walking Performance in Overweight and Obese Adults

“The objective of this study was to examine whether a programme of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves accumulative distance of self-paced walking in overweight and obese adults.”


“This study indicates that IMT may provide a practical, inexpensive, and minimally intrusive intervention to augment both inspiratory muscle strength and walking distance among overweight and obese adults. The beneficial effects of this treatment were similar to those previously reported from vigorous, supervised training among hospitalised obese patients. Our findings indicate similar effects could be expected without the need for hospitalisation and indicate that IMT via an inspiratory resistance device can easily be performed in the home environment. IMT therefore appears a useful strategy to enhance walking performance in overweight and obese individuals which may prove a meaningful priming intervention with which to stimulate performance adaptations and future engagement with physical activity.”

Read Four Weeks of Inspiratory Muscle Training Improves Self-Paced Walking Performance in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial >

IMT Abolishes Blood Lactate Increase Associated With Volitional Hyperpnoea Superimposed On Exercise And Accelerates Lactate And Oxygen Uptake Kinetics At Onset Of Exercise

“The effects were examined of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon volitional hyperpnoea-mediated increases in blood lactate during cycling at maximal lactate steady state power, and blood lactate and oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise.”


“Following the intervention, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased 19% in the IMT group only. Following IMT only, the increase in blood lactate during volitional hyperpnoea was abolished. In addition, the blood lactate and phase II oxygen uptake kinetics time constants at the onset of exercise and the maximal lactate steady state blood lactate were reduced. We attribute these changes to an IMT-mediated increase in the oxidative and/or lactate transport capacity of the inspiratory muscles.”

Read Inspiratory muscle training abolishes the blood lactate increase associated with volitional hyperpnoea superimposed on exercise and accelerates lactate and oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise >

Inspiratory Muscle Training Lowers The Oxygen Cost Of Voluntary Hyperpnea

“The purpose of this study was to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) alters the oxygen cost of breathing (Vo(2RM)) during voluntary hyperpnea.”


“The present study provides novel evidence that IMT reduces the O2 cost of voluntary hyperpnea in highly trained cyclists. This IMT-mediated reduction in the O2 cost of voluntary hyperpnea suggests that reducing the O2 requirements of the respiratory muscles may facilitate an increase in O2 availability to the active muscles during exercise. Thus these data may provide an insight into the possible mechanisms underpinning the previously reported improvements in whole body endurance performance following IMT.”

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Lung Cancer Surgery

‘Respiratory Muscle Strength, Functional Capacity and Subjective Outcome – Effects of IMT After Lung Cancer Surgery’

“The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of postoperative inspiratory muscle training on the recovery of respiratory muscle strength in high risk patients referred for lung cancer surgery. Furthermore, to assess longitudinal changes in respiratory muscle strength, physical capacity and health-related quality of life after lung cancer surgery.”

Go to Respiratory Muscle Strength, Functional Capacity and Subjective Outcome – Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training After Lung Cancer Surgery, a Randomized Controlled Trial >

Energy Cost Of Breathing At Depth: Effect Of Respiratory Muscle Training

“Respiratory muscle training against resistance (RRMT) increases respiratory muscle strength and endurance as well as underwater swimming endurance. We hypothesized that the latter is a result of RRMT reducing the high energy cost of breathing at depth.”


“RRMT significantly reduced the energy cost of ventilation, measured as delta VO2/delta V(E) during ISEV, at a depth of 55 fsw. Whether this change was due to reduced work of breathing and/or increased efficiency of the respiratory muscles remains to be determined.”

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Effect Of Respiratory Muscle Training On Exercise Performance In Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis

“Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects.”


Respiratory muscle training improves endurance exercise performance in healthy individuals with greater improvements in less fit individuals and in sports of longer durations… All types of respiratory muscle training can be used to improve exercise performance in healthy subjects but care must be taken regarding the test used to investigate the improvements.”

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Inspiratory Resistive Loading Improves Cycling Capacity: A Placebo Controlled Trial

“Respiratory muscle training has been shown to improve both its strength and endurance. The effect of these improvements on whole-body exercise performance remains controversial.”

The objective of this study was to “assess the effect of a 10 week inspiratory resistive loading intervention on respiratory muscle performance and whole-body exercise endurance.”


Ten weeks of inspiratory resistive loading attenuated the heart rate, ventilatory, and perceptual response to constant workload exercise, and improved the cycling time to exhaustion. Familiarisation was not a factor and the placebo effect was minimal.”

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