Respiratory Muscle Training in Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury

“The effect of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on respiratory muscle (RM) function, dyspnoea and exercise performance was evaluated in spinal cord injury athletes.”


“Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) can improve respiratory muscle function, reduce the perception of dyspnoea but modifies only slightly exercise performance in spinal cord injury athletes.”

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Pulmonary Function And Spinal Cord Injury

“Injury to the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord disrupts function of inspiratory and expiratory muscles, as reflected by reduction in spirometric and lung volume parameters and static mouth pressures. In association, subjects with tetraplegia have decreased chest wall and lung compliance, increased abdominal wall compliance, and rib cage stiffness with paradoxical chest wall movements, all of which contribute to an increase in the work of breathing.”

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Alterations In Maximal Inspiratory Mouth Pressure During A 400m Maximum Effort Front-Crawl Swimming Trial

“The aim of this study was to examine the changes of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) during a 400-m front crawl swimming trial.”


“Results indicated that during a maximum effort of 400-m front crawl, the reduction of inspiratory muscle strength occurs after 300-m. This should be considered for competitive swimming training by implementing swim race distance-specific respiratory muscle training.”

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Influence Of Different Breathing Frequencies On Severity Of Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue Induced By High-Intensity Front Crawl Swimming

“The aim of this study was to assess the influence of two different breathing frequencies on the magnitude of inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity front crawl swimming.”


“Data suggested that there is significant global inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity swimming. Inspiratory muscle fatigue is, however, greater when breathing frequency is reduced during high-intensity front crawl swimming. Respiratory muscle training should be used to improve respiratory muscle strength and endurance in swimmers.”

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Repeated Abdominal Exercise Induces Respiratory Muscle Fatigue

“Prolonged bouts of hyperpnea or resisted breathing are known to result in respiratory muscle fatigue, as are primarily non respiratory exercises such as maximal running and cycling… Sit-up training has been used to increase respiratory muscle strength, but no studies have been done to determine whether this type of non-respiratory activity can lead to respiratory fatigue. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of sit-ups on various respiratory muscle strength and endurance parameters.”


“After a one-time fatiguing sit-up exercise bout there is a reduction in respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP) and endurance (incremental breathing test duration) but not spirometric pulmonary function.”

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The Influence Of Respiratory Muscle Training Upon Intermittent Exercise Performance

“The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle training on intermittent exercise performance, respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle fatigue, and dyspnea in soccer athletes.”


“Respiratory Muscle Training improved intermittent exercise performance in these soccer athletes. The mechanisms by which RMT improves performance warrant further study.”

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Inspiratory Muscle Training And Endurance: A Central Metabolic Control Perspective

“This commentary examines the pertinent research and practical performance implications of Inspiratory Muscle Training from the holistic perspective of complex central metabolic control.”

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Inspiratory Resistive Loading After All-Out Exercise Improves Subsequent Performance

Previous studies have shown that post-exercise inspiratory resistive loading reduces blood lactate. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inspiratory resistive loading during recovery could improve subsequent exercise performance.


“Inspiratory resistive loading during recovery from all-out maximal-intensity exercise decreases blood lactate and perception of leg effort with beneficial effects on peak and mean power on subsequent supra-maximal exercise in healthy males. Our results provide rationale for using post-exercise inspiratory resistive loading as an ergogenic aid and future studies should be conducted to better evaluate the mechanisms responsible for this effect.”

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