Oxygen Uptake Kinetics And Maximal Aerobic Power Are Unaffected By IMT In Healthy Subjects Where Time To Exhaustion Is Extended

“The aim of this study was to determine whether 4 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would be accompanied by alteration in cardiopulmonary fitness as assessed through moderate intensity oxygen uptake (V(.)O(2)) kinetics and maximal aerobic power (V(.)O(2max)).”

Conclusion:

“The most plausible explanation for the stability in V(.)O(2) kinetics and V(.)O(2max) following IMT is that it is due to insufficient whole-body stress to elicit either central or peripheral cardiopulmonary adaptation. The extension of post-training T(lim) suggests that IMT might be useful as a stratagem for producing greater volumes of endurance work at high ventilatory loads, which in turn could improve cardiopulmonary fitness.”

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IMT With Behavioral Therapy In A Case Of A Rower With Presumed Exercise-Induced Paradoxical Vocal-Fold Dysfunction

“Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction (PVFD) with high effort exercise can result in disruptions to ventilation, dyspnea, inspiratory stridor, elevated heart rate, and syncope. This single subject study experimentally tested an inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) program with behavioral therapy on a 15-year-old male crew member.”

Conclusion:

“Outcome included successful competition with his high-school crew team, a task he was previously unable to complete. Discussion focuses on IMST combined with traditional approaches of voice therapy for treating PVFD.”

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Oxygen Uptake Kinetics And Maximal Aerobic Power Are Unaffected By IMT In Healthy Subjects Where Time To Exhaustion Is Extended

“The aim of this study was to determine whether 4 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would be accompanied by alteration in cardiopulmonary fitness as assessed through moderate intensity oxygen uptake (V_O2) kinetics and maximal aerobic power (V_ O2max).”

Conclusion:

“The improvement of maximal static inspiratory mouth pressure (Pi,max) in training group shows that IMT training enhances inspiratory muscle strength; however, this is not supported by improvement in either VO2 kinetics or VO2max. It is therefore likely that IMT training alone is not of direct benefit to the cardiopulmonary fitness of healthy subjects. However, diaphragmatic fatigue may have a limiting role in maximal constant-load exercise and consequently, IMT might be a useful stratagem of extracting greater volumes of endurance work at high ventilatory loads, which in turn could improve cardio-pulmonary fitness.”

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The Effect Of IMT Upon Maximum Lactate Steady-State And Blood Lactate Concentration

“Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration. This study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state.

Conclusion:

“Data supports previous observations that IMT results in a decrease in blood lactate concentration at a given intensity of exercise. That such a decrease in blood lactate concentration was not associated with a substantial (>2.5%) increase in maximum lactate steady state power is a new finding suggesting that RMT-induced increases in exercise tolerance and reductions in blood lactate concentration are not ascribable to a substantial increase in the ‘lactate threshold’.

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Respiratory Muscle Training in Healthy Humans: Resolving the Controversy

“An overview of the literature that rationalizes contradictory findings about respiratory muscle training in healthy people.”

Conclusion:

“It is likely that the ergogenic effect of respiratory muscle training (RMT) has a multifactorial etiology that may include:

  1. The direct effect of RMT upon respiratory muscle fatigue
  2. RMT’s indirect effects upon improving blood flow distribution to limb locomotor muscles in heavy exercise
  3. RMT’s direct and indirect effect upon the intensity with which both respiratory and peripheral efforts are perceived.”

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Influence Of Environmental Temperature On Exercise-Induced Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue

“If blood is diverted away from the inspiratory muscles to the skin during exercise in the heat, exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue might be exacerbated. This study hypothesised that prolonged heavy endurance exercise in the heat would impair exercise performance and exacerbate inspiratory muscle fatigue compared to exercise in a thermo-neutral environment.

Conclusion:

“This study concluded that heavy sustained exercise in the heat impaired subsequent time-trial performance but did not exacerbate inspiratory muscle fatigue in endurance-trained subjects.”

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The Effects Of Different IMT Intensities On Exercising Heart Rate And Perceived Exertion

“This study investigated the relationship between the intensity of an inspiratory muscle training programme and its effect on respiratory muscle strength, exercising heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion.”

Conclusion:

Six weeks of both MAX (subjects that trained at 100% of maximum inspiratory pressure i.e. MIP) and SUB (subjects that trained at 80% MIP) training were sufficient to improve inspiratory muscle strength. However, exercising heart rate and perceived exertion decreased with MAX training only.

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