IMT With Behavioral Therapy In A Case Of A Rower With Presumed Exercise-Induced Paradoxical Vocal-Fold Dysfunction

“Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction (PVFD) with high effort exercise can result in disruptions to ventilation, dyspnea, inspiratory stridor, elevated heart rate, and syncope. This single subject study experimentally tested an inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) program with behavioral therapy on a 15-year-old male crew member.”


“Outcome included successful competition with his high-school crew team, a task he was previously unable to complete. Discussion focuses on IMST combined with traditional approaches of voice therapy for treating PVFD.”

Read Inspiratory muscle strength training with behavioral therapy in a case of a rower with presumed exercise-induced paradoxical vocal-fold dysfunction >

Inspiratory Muscle Training In Exercise-Induced Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion

“The purpose of the study was to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would result in increased inspiratory muscle strength, reduced perception of exertional dyspnea, and improved measures of maximal exercise effort in an athlete with exercise-induced paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM).”


“The findings suggest that IMT may be a promising treatment approach for athletes with exercise-induced PVFM.”

Read Inspiratory muscle training in exercise-induced paradoxical vocal fold motion >

Effect Of Specific Inspiratory Muscle Warm-Up On Intense Intermittent Run To Exhaustion

“The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) warm-up on the maximum dynamic IM function and the maximum repetitions of 20-m shuttle run (Ex) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were examined.”


“Findings suggested that the specific IM warm-up in IMW may entail reduction in breathlessness sensation, partly attributable to the enhancement of dynamic IM functions, in subsequent exhaustive intermittent run and, in turn, improve the exercise tolerance.”

Therefore POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training can effectively be used to:

  • Warm-up the breathing muscles prior to rehearsal or performance

Read Effect of specific inspiratory muscle warm-up on intense intermittent run to exhaustion >

Specific Respiratory Warm-up Improves Rowing Performance And Exertional Dyspnea

“The purpose of this study was a) to compare the effect of three different warm-up protocols upon rowing performance and perception of dyspnea, and b) to identify the functional significance of a respiratory warm-up.”


“These data suggest that a combination of a respiratory warm-up protocol together with a specific rowing warm-up is more effective than a specific rowing warm-up or a submaximal warm-up alone as a preparation for rowing performance.”

Therefore POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training can effectively be used to:

  • Warm-up the breathing muscles prior to rehearsal or performance

Read Specific respiratory warm-up improves rowing performance and exertional dyspnea >

Laryngeal Movements During Inspiratory Muscle Training In Healthy Subjects

“Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been used to treat patients with exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (VCD); the theoretical basis being the close relationship between the diaphragm and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, which is the main abductor of the larynx. Before launching a treatment protocol in patients with VCD, we aimed to substantiate this theory by performing laryngoscopy in healthy subjects during standardized IMT programs.”


“IMT can produce laryngeal abduction in healthy subjects, and training programs may conceivably contribute positively in patients suffering from laryngeal adduction during exercise. Individual response patterns varied between subjects and individualized programs seem crucial for effect. Use of high resistances seemed to be counterproductive.”

Therefore POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training:

  • May affect the intrinsic laryngeal muscles which control the action of the larynx

Read Laryngeal movements during inspiratory muscle training in healthy subjects >

Effect of High-Intensity Inspiratory Muscle Training on Lung Volumes, Diaphragm Thickness, and Exercise Capacity in Subjects Who Are Healthy

“Previous investigations have demonstrated that a regimen of high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (IMT) resulted in changes in ventilatory function and exercise capacity in patients with chronic lung disease, although the effect of high-intensity IMT in subjects who are healthy is yet to be determined. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether high-intensity IMT resulted in changes in ventilatory function and exercise capacity in subjects who were healthy.”


“The findings of this study suggest that high-intensity IMT results in increased contracted diaphragm thickness and increased lung volumes and exercise capacity in people who are healthy.”

Therefore POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training can effectively be used to:

  • Enhance the ability to inflate the lungs (take deeper breaths)

Read Effect of High-Intensity Inspiratory Muscle Training on Lung Volumes, Diaphragm Thickness, and Exercise Capacity in Subjects Who Are Healthy >

Effects Of Changes In Inspiratory Muscle Strength On The Sensation Of Respiratory Force

“The sensation of respiratory muscle force was compared in seven normal subjects before and after inspiratory muscle strength training.”


“Results suggest that the sensation of respiratory muscle force reflects the proportion of the maximum force utilized in breathing and may be based on the level of respiratory motor command signals.”

Therefore POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training can effectively be used to:

  • Enhance the ability to control the breath
  • Enhance the ability to sustain forceful breathing (breathing does not become fatigued)

Read Effects of changes in inspiratory muscle strength on the sensation of respiratory force >

Benefits For Singing, Music, Dancing

POWERbreathe For Vocalists

POWERbreathe Japan have been supporting several singers with POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training to help them breathe more deeply, control their breath and sustain forceful breathing.

Artists who’ll be undertaking their POWERbreahte Inspiratory Muscle Training include singer-songwriters Chika Takahashi and UKO (Yuko), and vocalists Daisuke and Nona.

Each artist has their own unique style of singing but each vocalist will benefit from POWERbreathe IMT.

Chika Takahashi

Chika, a beautifully soft-voiced neo-acoustic singer has been using POWERbreathe since last year and began using it two-weeks prior to a live performance, afterwards saying how comfortable her breathing was during the performance. She now uses it on a daily basis and takes it with her to all live performances so she can perform a vocal warm-up prior to going on-stage.

You can see Chika talking about POWERbreathe on YouTube >


Daisuke, a versatile singer with a reputation for a powerful falsetto voice has not long started POWERbreathe training.

He says that because you can’t actually see your breathing muscles you don’t think about training them, but after using POWERbreathe he felt immediately how much stronger they would become.


Nona is a percussionist and vocalist and therefore not only has to have enough breathing stamina to sing, but also to drum at the same time, so her breathing will fatigue quite quickly. By using POWERbreathe daily she will improve her breathing strength and stamina and reduce her breathing fatigue.

UKO (Yuko)

UKO has a mellow and soulful voice, and in 2014 her single “Signal” was nominated for the ‘JBS Music Award’. She’s a very energetic singer and realises how important it is that her breathing muscles are strong in order for her to maintain her energy. POWERbreathe IMT will help her with this as she’ll be training her breathing muscles twice a day to become stronger and more resistant to fatigue.

Find out more about POWERbreathe for vocalists in Japan >

Breathing techniques for singers

One of the biggest challenges any singer faces is learning how to breathe correctly. As if that is not hard enough they also need to know how to control their breathing so it is used to optimum effect when singing.

From birth our breathing is naturally correct. For example, a baby can scream, yell and breathe using their lungs with optimum effect because they are doing this without a conscious thought. However, as we start to grow older some people become lazy in their habits and only use the upper part of their lungs – they take a shallow breath instead of a normal one.

To understand how correct breathing and breath control works, first you need to understand the process that it uses to operate.

Surrounding your lungs is a muscle system called the diaphragm which is attached to the lower ribs on the sides, bottom and to the back, acting as an inhalation device. When you breathe in the muscles lower, displacing the stomach and intestines. When you breathe out the diaphragm helps the abdominal muscles control how quickly the breath is exhaled.

If you breathe out quickly, the diaphragm does nothing but when you breathe out very slowly the diaphragm resists the action of the abdominal muscles. A singer learns to use this muscle system to control the breath as it is being exhaled.

Hold a finger close to your lips and breathe out slowly, the breath should be warm and moist and you should notice the action of the diaphragm as you exhale. This is the correct amount of breath used when singing normally. A singer does not need to ‘force’ or ‘push’ air through the vocal chords to produce a good strong sound, doing so creates too much pressure against the chords, preventing them from operating correctly which can cause damage to the voice.

The stomach area should move naturally inward toward the end of the breath, the stomach should not be ‘sucked in’ as it prevents the diaphragm from working effectively. Instead the abdominal area should remain expanded to the level it was when you inhaled and allowed to gradually decrease naturally at the end of the breath.

This is where the ‘control’ comes into play – the singer expands the lungs by inhaling and ‘controls’ the amount of air expelled when singing a note by allowing the muscle support system to remain expanded – this doesn’t mean the stomach is pushed out, rather that it is blown up like a balloon when the air goes in and the singer slows down the natural rate at which it goes down. In most people the breathing is shallow and only the top half of the lungs are used – breathing correctly uses the whole of the lungs so that more air is available, the singer then uses the natural action of the muscles (diaphragm and abdominals) surrounding the lungs to control the amount of air that is exhaled when singing a note.

Good breath support during singing and speech requires good posture, abdominal breathing and breathing during natural pauses. Breathing techniques and correct support does not require great physical strength – although having toned abdominal muscles helps. Remember the diaphragm doesn’t exhale for you – just helps to control the amount of air exhaled and if done correctly your vocal exercises routine will become second nature.