Inspiratory Muscle Training Improves Rowing Performance

“The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance.”

Conclusion:

“IMT improves rowing performance on the 6-min all-out effort and the 5000-m trial.”

Read Inspiratory Muscle Training Improves Rowing Performance >

IMT Reduces Blood Lactate Concentration During Volitional Hyperpnoea

“Although reduced blood lactate concentrations have been observed during whole-body exercise following inspiratory muscle training (IMT), it remains unknown whether the inspiratory muscles are the source of at least part of this reduction. This investigation tested the hypothesis that IMT would attenuate the increase in blood lactate concentrations caused by mimicking, at rest, the breathing pattern observed during high-intensity exercise.”

Conclusion:

“After 6 weeks, increases in blood lactate concentrations during volitional hyperpnoea were unchanged in the control group. Conversely, following IMT the increase in blood lactate concentrations during volitional hyperpnoea was reduced by 17 ± 37% and 25 ± 34% following 8 and 10 min, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increases in blood lactate concentrations during volitional hyperpnoea at 85% maximal exercise minute ventilation were attenuated following IMT.”

“These findings suggest that the inspiratory muscles were the source of at least part of this reduction, and provide a possible explanation for some of the IMT-mediated reductions in blood lactate concentrations often observed during whole- body exercise.”

Read Inspiratory muscle training reduces blood lactate concentration during volitional hyperpnoea >

IMT Improves Cycling Time-Trial Performance And Anaerobic Work Capacity But Not Critical Power

This study “examined whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved cycling time-trial performance and changed the relationship between limit work and limit time, which is described by the parameters critical power and anaerobic work capacity.”

Conclusion:

“These data provide novel evidence that improvements in constant-power and cycling time-trial performance following IMT in cyclists may be explained, in part, by an increase in anaerobic work capacity.”

Read IMT improves cycling time-trial performance and anaerobic work capacity but not critical power >

Management of respiratory diseases beyond drugs: Pulmonary Rehab

This article highlights some of the areas raised by a discussion panel in Mumbai on Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) of patients with respiratory diseases.

Topics covered were:

  • REHABILITATION IN COPD (CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE)

The panel touched on how “Respiratory-muscle training can be considered in patients with respiratory-muscle weakness.”

POWERbreathe Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) is drug-free, clinically proven and beneficial for patients with COPD as a stand alone therapy and for pulmonary rehab. Read more about POWERbreathe RMT for Pulmonary Rehab in COPD patients.

  • PULMONARY REHABILITATION IN TB
  • REHABILITATION IN IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS (IPF)
  • REHABILITATION IN POST LUNG RE-SECTIONAL SURGERY

Read the full article.

View list of published research that used POWERbreathe as the IMT intervention of choice in POWERbreathe in Research.

Find more published research on our Inspiratory Muscle Training Research blog.

 

Effects of respiratory muscle training on respiratory mechanics and energy cost

STUDY:

The effects of respiratory muscle training on respiratory mechanics and energy cost 

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Volume 200, 15 August 2014, Pages 7–17

Abstract:

“Resistance respiratory muscle training (RRMT) increases respiratory muscle strength and can increase swimming endurance time by as much as 85%.

The purpose of this study was to examine potential mechanisms by which RRMT improves exercise endurance.”

Method:

“Airway resistance (R aw), exhaled nitric oxide output , and respiratory duty cycle (TI/TTot) were determined before and after four weeks of RRMT.”

Conclusions:

“Resistance respiratory muscle training decreased TI/TTot respiratory duty cycle (−10% at rest at 1 ATA – atmospheres of absolute pressure, (−17% at 2.7 ATA during submersed exercise), (−6% at 2.7 ATA during submersed exercise), and R aw airway resistance (−34% inspiratory at 4.6 ATA submersed, −38% expiratory at 2.7 ATA dry), independent of changes in .

Most importantly, respiratory muscle efficiency increased (+83% at 2.7 ATA submersed).”

View the Abstract. 

View list of published research that used POWERbreathe as the IMT intervention of choice in POWERbreathe in Research.

Find more published research on our Inspiratory Muscle Training Research blog.

Effect of feedback RMT on pulmonary function in children with cerebral palsy

Clinical Rehabilitation published online a study abstract, the objective for which was ‘to investigate the effect of respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy’.

ARTICLE

The effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled preliminary report

Hye Young Lee, Yong Jun Cha, Kyoung Kim

INTRODUCTION

“Cerebral palsy does not directly cause airway or parenchymal lung dysfunction, however, the consequences of neuromuscular impairment may lead to lung damage and low cardiopulmonary capacity, and it reduces lung function of children with cerebral palsy… Some children with cerebral palsy, therefore, suffer from a high incidence of respiratory dysfunction, such as recurrent pneumonia, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, sleep apnoea, and chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary function is thus an important issue in preservation of life for children with cerebral palsy.”

“Previous studies have reported an association in children with cerebral palsy between respiratory problems and decreased chest wall mobility, deviation of optimal chest wall structure and insufficient respiratory muscle strength. Early initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation may result in improvement and maintenance of chest mobility and respiratory function, and respiratory training can also be appropriate therapy in comprehensive treatment of children with cerebral palsy.

Several studies have reported that feedback respiratory training can provide maximal efficacy in improvement of respiratory function, endurance for exercise capacity, perception of dyspnoea and quality of life. However, no study to determine whether feedback respiratory training can have an effect on the respiratory function of children with cerebral palsy has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether feedback respiratory training would improve pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy.”

CONCLUSION

“Participation in feedback respiratory training resulted in improvement of pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy.”

CLINICAL MESSAGES

  • Training respiratory muscles by utilizing visual and auditory stimulations increased forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at one second in children with cerebral palsy.
  • Feedback respiratory training may be beneficial for the management of the pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy.

“Further research into the various effects of feedback respiratory training on children with cerebral palsy, particularly a comparison with other treatment methods for improvement of pulmonary function will be necessary.”

Read the Abstract online, The effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled preliminary report 

Frontiers in Respiratory Muscle Training in Health and Disease

The ‘Frontiers in Respiratory Muscle Training in Health and Disease’ was one of a series of free research seminars launched by The Centre for Sports Medicine & Human Performance, and it took place on Tuesday 30th April.

Professor Alison McConnell provided an overview of the history of IMT, the “state of the art”, as well as the rationale for each of three putative mechanisms for the well-established ergogenic effect of IMT. These mechanisms were expanded and developed by three other speakers, Dr Lee Romer, Dr Emma Ross and King’s College Hospital physician, Dr Caroline Jolley.

Dr Romer described the high metabolic cost of respiratory muscle work in highly trained individuals, the conditions under which exercise-induced fatigue of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles arises, and its implications for exercise tolerance. Dr Romer then reviewed the evidence that feedback from respiratory muscle afferents can exacerbate locomotor muscle contractile fatigue and impair performance.

Dr Emma Ross provided insights into another role for muscle afferent feedback, viz., its role in central fatigue which included consideration of the potential role of respiratory muscle afferents in central fatigue as part of an “ensemble” of feedback that serves to maintain and optimise exercise performance.

Dr Caroline Jolley explained the role of respiratory muscle function in the perception of breathing effort and focused on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A neurophysiological model of breathlessness was presented in which disordered lung mechanics and diaphragm weakness lead to an uncoupling of inspiratory pressure generation and ventilation to create a state of “neuromechanical dissociation” and efferent-afferent mismatch. Dr Jolley finished her presentation by considering whether IMT might ameliorate this mismatch.

The whole seminar finished off with a “question and answer” session.

Here’s a video of the lecture given by Professor Alison McConnell discussing the research behind and putative mechanisms for inspiratory muscle training.

Watch all four presentations on the Centre for Sports Medicine & Human Performance YouTube channel.

Lectures:

RMT for respiratory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders

On November 15th 2012 Chest Journal (Official Publication of the American College of Chest Physicians) published the Abstract of Original Research on:

“Respiratory muscle training for respiratory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders: A systematic review”

Authors: Alvaro Reyes, PhD; Mel Ziman, PhD; Ken Nosaka, PhD

Background: Studies of respiratory muscle training on central neurodegenerative pathologies have been aimed at improving pulmonary function. However, there is no certainty about the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training in patients affected by these groups of disorders. The purpose of this review was to assess the evidence regarding the efficacy of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on respiratory function in patients with neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system.

Methods: Studies reporting on inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in patients with neurodegenerative diseases were included.

Conclusions: There is some evidence that respiratory muscle training improves a number of respiratory function parameters in patients with Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis; however, the number of studies and their quality are not sufficient to conclude whether inspiratory or expiratory muscle training is effective for improved respiratory function in patients with neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system.

The above is a short excerpt from the Abstract published online, so please visit Chest Journal online to read more.

Respiratory Muscle Training for children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Respiratory Muscle Training for children with Duchenne Muscular DystrophyRespiratory muscle training can improve respiratory muscle strength and endurance in children and young adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Acute respiratory failure associated with respiratory infection is the most frequent reason for unplanned hospital admission, and chronic respiratory failure is a frequent cause of death. With appropriate intervention, the incidence of unplanned hospital admission can be reduced and life expectancy can be improved.

The British Thoracic Society has produced guidelines for respiratory management of children with neuromuscular weakness and provides recommendations that will aid the healthcare professional in delivering good quality patient care.

The guidelines have been deemed by the Editor to be of special interest or importance and the article is freely available: ‘British Thoracic Society’s Respiratory Management of Children with Neuromuscular Weakness Guideline’

Effects of respiratory muscle training on performance in athletes: a systematic review with meta-analyses

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research“Effects of respiratory muscle training on performance in athletes: a systematic review with meta-analyses”

Hajghanbari B, Yamabayashi C, Buna T, Coelho J, Freedman K, Morton T, Palmer S, Toy M, Walsh C, Sheel AW, Reid WD.

More research recently published (July 25th 2012) to determine if respiratory muscle training (RMT) improves sport performance, and respiratory muscle strength and endurance.

The conclusion revealed that RMT can improve sport performance. Inspiratory muscle strength and endurance improved in most studies, which in part, was dependent on the type of RMT employed.

 

Read the Abstract online at The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research