Attenuated Inspiratory Muscle Metaboreflex In Endurance-Trained Individuals

“The inspiratory metaboreflex is activated during loaded breathing to task failure and induces sympathetic activation and peripheral vasoconstriction that may limit exercise performance. Inspiratory muscle training appears to attenuate the inspiratory metaboreflex in healthy subjects. Since whole body aerobic exercise training improves breathing endurance and inspiratory muscle strength, we hypothesized that endurance-trained individuals would demonstrate a blunted inspiratory muscle metaboreflex in comparison to sedentary individuals.”


“Data demonstrate that endurance-trained individuals have an attenuated inspiratory muscle metaboreflex.”

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Inspiratory Muscle Training Lowers The Oxygen Cost Of Voluntary Hyperpnea

“The purpose of this study was to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) alters the oxygen cost of breathing (Vo(2RM)) during voluntary hyperpnea.”


“The present study provides novel evidence that IMT reduces the O2 cost of voluntary hyperpnea in highly trained cyclists. This IMT-mediated reduction in the O2 cost of voluntary hyperpnea suggests that reducing the O2 requirements of the respiratory muscles may facilitate an increase in O2 availability to the active muscles during exercise. Thus these data may provide an insight into the possible mechanisms underpinning the previously reported improvements in whole body endurance performance following IMT.”

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Inspiratory Muscle Training Improves 100 and 200m Swimming Performance

“Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve time trial performance in competitive athletes across a range of sports. Surprisingly, however, the effect of specific IMT on surface swimming performance remains un-investigated.”


“6 weeks of IMT has a small positive effect on swimming performance in club-level trained swimmers in events shorter than 400m.”

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Training Inspiratory Muscles Improves Running Performance When Carrying A 25kg Thoracic Load In A Backpack

“This study investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT, 50% maximal inspiratory muscle pressure (PImax) twice daily for six week) upon running time-trial performance with thoracic load carriage.”


“When wearing a 25kg backpack, IMT attenuated the cardiovascular and perceptual responses to steady-state exercise and improved high-intensity time-trial performance which we attribute in part to reduced relative work intensity of the inspiratory muscles due to improved inspiratory muscle strength. These findings have real-world implications for occupational contexts.”

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400-Meter and 800-Meter Track Running Induces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue In Trained Female Middle-Distance Runners

“Inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) may limit exercise performance. A few studies have reported that IMF occurs after short-duration swimming exercise, but whether short-duration running can induce IMF remains unclear.”


“IMF occurs after short-duration running exercise. Coaches could consider prescribing inspiratory muscle training or warm-up in an effort to reduce the inevitable IMF associated with maximal effort running.”

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The Influence Of Inspiratory And Expiratory Muscle Training Upon Rowing Performance

“This study investigated the effect of 4 week of inspiratory (IMT) or expiratory muscle training (EMT), as well as the effect of a subsequent 6 week period of combined IMT/EMT on rowing performance in club-level oarsmen.”


“There were no significant additional changes following combined IMT/EMT. IMT improved rowing performance, but EMT and subsequent combined IMT/EMT did not.”

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IMT Improves Exercise Tolerance in Recreational Soccer Players

“This study investigated whether the addition of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to an existing program of preseason soccer training would augment performance indices such as exercise tolerance and sports-specific performance beyond the use of preseason training alone.”


“There may be benefit for soccer players to incorporate IMT to their pre-season training but the effect is not conclusive. It is likely that a greater pre-season training stimulus would be particularly meaningful for this population if fitness gains are a priority and evoke a stronger IMT response.”

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Effect Of Inspiratory Muscle Work On Peripheral Fatigue Of Locomotor Muscles In Healthy Humans

“The work of breathing required during maximal exercise compromises blood flow to limb locomotor muscles and reduces exercise performance. This study asked if force output of the inspiratory muscles affected exercise-induced peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles.”


“Peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles resulting from high-intensity sustained exercise is, in part, due to the accompanying high levels of respiratory muscle work.”

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The Effect Of IMT Upon Maximum Lactate Steady-State And Blood Lactate Concentration

“Several studies have reported that improvements in endurance performance following respiratory muscle training (RMT) are associated with a decrease in blood lactate concentration. This study examined whether pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) elicits an increase in the cycling power output corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state.


“Data supports previous observations that IMT results in a decrease in blood lactate concentration at a given intensity of exercise. That such a decrease in blood lactate concentration was not associated with a substantial (>2.5%) increase in maximum lactate steady state power is a new finding suggesting that RMT-induced increases in exercise tolerance and reductions in blood lactate concentration are not ascribable to a substantial increase in the ‘lactate threshold’.

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‘Functional’ Inspiratory And Core Muscle Training Enhances Running Performance And Economy

“This study compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition, only interval training was undertaken, whilst under the intervention condition, interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training – ‘functional’ IMT.”


“Findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program upon endurance running performance, and that this may be underpinned by an improvement in running economy.”

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