Influence of Gender and Inspiratory Muscle Training on the Perception of Dyspnea in Patients With Asthma

“Men and women respond differently to asthma. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax), ?2-agonist consumption, and perception of dyspnea (POD) were measured in 22 women and 22 men with mild persistent-to- moderate asthma. Next, the women were randomized into two groups: those who received inspiratory muscle training and those who received sham training. The training ended when the PImax of the training group was equal to that of the male subjects. POD was then measured once again.”


“Our study shows that the inspiratory muscles in women could be trained within 20 weeks to reach the same strength as in their male counterparts. This increase in inspiratory muscle strength completely concealed the gender differences in POD and ?2 -agonist consumption, suggesting that the gender differential in maximal inspiratory muscle strength is responsible for the fact that women are more symptomatic than men. However, other possibilities for the gender differences could not be negated in our study, and further investigations are needed to completely clarify the issue.”

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Sex Differences In Intensity And Qualitative Dimensions Of Exertional Dyspnea In Physically Active Young Adults

“Understanding sex differences in the qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea may provide insight into why women are more affected by this symptom than men. This study explored the evolution of the qualitative dimensions of dyspnea in 70 healthy, young, physically active adults.”


“Findings suggest that men and women do not differ in their perceived quality of dyspnea during submaximal exercise, but subjective differences appear at maximal exercise and may be related, at least in part, to underlying sex differences in breathing patterns and operating lung volumes during exercise.”

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A Comparison Of Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue Following Maximal Exercise In Moderately Trained Males And Females

“Exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) has been reported in males but there are few reports of IMF in females. It is not known if a gender difference exists for inspiratory muscle strength following heavy exercise, as is reported in locomotor muscles.”


“Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue observed immediately following maximal exercise, demonstrated the same pattern of recovery for both genders.”

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