Effect Of Inspiratory Muscle Work On Peripheral Fatigue Of Locomotor Muscles In Healthy Humans

“The work of breathing required during maximal exercise compromises blood flow to limb locomotor muscles and reduces exercise performance. This study asked if force output of the inspiratory muscles affected exercise-induced peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles.”


“Peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles resulting from high-intensity sustained exercise is, in part, due to the accompanying high levels of respiratory muscle work.”

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Changes In Respiratory Muscle And Lung Function Following Marathon Running In Man

“Respiratory muscle fatigue has been reported following short bouts of high-intensity exercise, and prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise… However, links to functionally relevant outcomes such as breathing effort have been lacking. This study examined dyspnoea and leg fatigue during a treadmill marathon in nine experienced runners.”


“Results confirm that prolonged moderate-intensity exercise induces inspiratory muscle fatigue. Furthermore, they suggest that the relative intensity of inspiratory muscle work during exercise makes some contribution to leg fatigue.”

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Concurrent inspiratory muscle and cardiovascular training improves both perceptions of effort and 5000-m running performance

“This study examined whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a useful additional training aid with which to augment cardiovascular exercise training adaptations.”


“The addition of IMT to a cardiovascular training programme augments 5000-m running performance but exerts no additional influence over VO2 max compared with a cardiovascular-training group. This is probably due to IMT-induced reductions in perceived effort at high ventilatory rates which is of greater consequence to longer duration time-trial performances than incremental tests of VO2 max.”

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Resistive Respiratory Muscle Training Improves And Maintains Endurance Swimming Performance In Divers

“In comparison to exercise on land, respiratory work during underwater exercise is increased due to the hydrostatic pressure differences across the chest as well as increased flow resistive respiratory work.”

“It has recently been shown in healthy individuals that ventilatory limitations may cause a reduction of maximal exercise performance on land. The weakened exercise capacity has been attributed to a reduction in locomotor muscle oxygen transport secondary to diminished locomotor muscle blood flow. In several studies on land, respiratory muscle fatigue has been reported as a contributing factor to reduced maximal and endurance exercise performance. These same factors may also limit exercise performance in divers.


“The major findings of the present study were that 30 minutes of resistance respiratory muscle training carried out three or five days per week for four weeks substantially improved fin swimming endurance (at 70-75%V. O ) and that similar improvements in respiratory muscle performance were obtained.”

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Development And Evaluation Of A Pressure Threshold Inspiratory Muscle Trainer For Use In The Context Of Sports Performance

“Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) became widespread, particularly in a clinical context, and at the time of this research a pressure threshold training device suitable for training the inspiratory muscles of healthy humans did not exist. The purpose of this paper was to document the design and development of such a device – the POWERbreathe.

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Respiratory Muscle Energetics During Exercise In Healthy Subjects And Patients With COPD

“This article intended to answer the following:

  1. Does respiratory muscle fatigue affect alveolar ventilation (VE)
  2. May work and cost of breathing of primary and accessory respiratory muscles compete with locomotor muscles to blood supply and oxygen uptake
  3. What is the role of abnormality of O2 transport and utilization on the limitation of exercise tolerance in patients with COPD?

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Does Training Of Respiratory Muscles Affect Exercise Performance In Healthy Subjects?

This article asks, “Is there a physiologic rationale for respiratory muscle training effects on exercise performance?”


“Recent studies provide evidence that respiratory muscle training improves exercise performance in well-controlled and rigorously designed studies utilizing exercise tests with the lowest coefficient of variation for repeated testing, appropriate outcome measures, and fitness of the participants. Further studies, however, are needed to define the mechanisms by which RMT improves exercise performance.”

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Effect Of Respiratory Muscle Training On Exercise Performance In Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis

“Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects.”


Respiratory muscle training improves endurance exercise performance in healthy individuals with greater improvements in less fit individuals and in sports of longer durations… All types of respiratory muscle training can be used to improve exercise performance in healthy subjects but care must be taken regarding the test used to investigate the improvements.”

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Respiratory Disorders In Endurance Athletes – How Much Do They Really Have To Endure?

“Respiratory disorders are often a cause of morbidity in top level endurance athletes, more often compromising their performance and rarely being a cause of death… An overview of the main tools both enabling the diagnosis of respiratory impairment in endurance athletes in a clinical and preclinical phase has also been described.”


“Taking up the question of the title of this report, the researchers can say that every endurance athlete has their own limit in endurance training that once passed will produce all the possible respiratory disorders described in the report.”

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The Effects Of Different IMT Intensities On Exercising Heart Rate And Perceived Exertion

“This study investigated the relationship between the intensity of an inspiratory muscle training programme and its effect on respiratory muscle strength, exercising heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion.”


Six weeks of both MAX (subjects that trained at 100% of maximum inspiratory pressure i.e. MIP) and SUB (subjects that trained at 80% MIP) training were sufficient to improve inspiratory muscle strength. However, exercising heart rate and perceived exertion decreased with MAX training only.

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