Respiratory Muscle-Induced Metaboreflex

A recent research paper in Experimental Physiology looks into the effect of an increase in inspiratory muscle work on blood flow to inactive and active limbs. It addresses the process of metaboreflex.

What is metaboreflex?

Metaboreflex is where the body restricts blood flow to the limbs when the breathing muscles fatigue. The body will do this to ensure the role of breathing continues. This is because breathing is crucial to survival. Therefore, when the body experiences a conflict between breathing and moving, breathing wins out.

How does metaboreflex work?

As soon as the body senses a conflict between breathing and extreme activity, it will redirect blood flow to the breathing muscles, for survival. In so doing, blood flow to the exercising limbs shuts down, allowing the diaphragm a chance to recover. What this tells us is that the stronger the diaphragm is, the faster it will recover. Consequently, stronger breathing muscles will, in turn, result in a better blood supply to your working limbs. This will result in a better sports performance.

These YouTube videos from breathing expert James Fletcher, clearly demonstrate the metaboreflex.

Part 1

Part 2

Study results

When exercising, the amount of energy consumed by the working muscles can be high and prolonged. Blood flow to these working muscles needs to be matched. The results of this study suggest that the control of blood redistribution to the working muscles is facilitated, in part, by respiratory muscle-induced metaboreflex.

Delaying the onset of metaboreflex

Improving the strength of your breathing muscles will help to delay the onset of the metaboreflex for the diaphragm. A scientifically proven way of doing this is with Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT). In fact, there are other studies showing IMT to be beneficial too.

This award-winning research, awarded by the European College of Sport Science (ECSS), also suggests the potential role of IMT to reduce inspiratory muscle metaboreflex.

Another study suggests respiratory muscle training could enhance sports performance by delaying this process.

Finally, there is a study by Germain Fernandez Monterrubio, Bachelor of Science in Physical Activity and Sport, in which he finds how respiratory muscle fatigue can affect exercise tolerance on a pulmonary level, as well as, a muscular level.

Effect of increased inspiratory muscle work on blood flow to inactive and active limbs during submaximal dynamic exercise >

Can Multiple Sclerosis Affect Breathing

The automatic nervous system is part of the central nervous system. It controls vital functions, one of which is breathing, which we do without thinking. According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, it is unusual for MS to affect the nervous system and therefore breathing.

How Multiple Sclerosis affects breathing

However, patients with MS will experience muscle weakness. This affects all parts of the body, including the breathing muscles. These muscles, mainly the diaphragm and intercostals begin to lose their strength and stamina. As a result, breathing becomes more difficult and breathing in and out feels like hard work. Consequently, this adds to the feeling of fatigue, which is already a debilitating symptom of Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, the weakness of the breathing muscles may also impede speech and voice production.

How to improve breathing strength and stamina

A 2007 study shows that Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) significantly increases breathing muscle strength in people with MS. Additionally, IMT improves how well the lungs work in people with Multiple Sclerosis who have minimal to moderate disability.

The effects of Multiple Sclerosis on your body

Healthline, the fastest growing health information site, has created this medically reviewed infographic showing the effects of MS on the body.

The infographic itself provides a quick look at the effects of MS on the body. However, the rest of the article goes on to explain in more depth how this progressive neurodegenerative condition has an impact on the whole body.

Tips to Improve Breathing

You may be asking yourself why you need to improve your breathing. It’s a fair question. After all, at rest, you take 12 – 16 breaths per minute without even thinking about it. So just imagine what your breathing would be like if you were to start thinking about how you do it. Here you’ll find 5 top tips to improve breathing.

Begin by breathing more deeply. Don’t breathe from your chest but from your abdomen instead; your diaphragm. Your diaphragm is your main breathing muscle. It’s the one you really need to think about utilising when you breathe.

Unlike diaphragmatic breathing, chest breathing means you’ll only be taking in shallow breaths. Consequently, it doesn’t provide your body with the amount of oxygen it needs to function properly. As a result, chest breathing will take a toll on your body. Unfortunately, many of us will be chest breathers, as we lead busy lives and are constantly in a state of flight or fight. In addition to the lifestyle we lead, we may also chest breathe because of a poor posture. In fact, because more of us are working on screens – from mobiles to desktops – ‘screen-apnoea’ is fast becoming a new world condition.

Screen apnoea, poor posture – in fact, many things, can result in poor breathing habits. But there are ways to improve your breathing.

Tips to improve breathing

  1. Use Google’s new 1-minute Breathing Exercise tool. Search for ‘deep breathing’ or ‘breathing exercise(s)’ to get a 1-minute guided mindfulness exercise to control your breathing.
  2. Exercise your breathing muscles with Inspiratory Muscle Training.
  3. Learn to sing! It’ll help you to control your breathing.
  4. Improve your posture. Stand up straight and draw your shoulders up, back and down.
  5. Exercise to a level where speaking becomes difficult. This will improve your body’s ability to use oxygen.

Your lungs and exercise

It is well known that being active is good for you. If performed on a regular basis, it will improve your quality of life. In fact, regular exercise will also help you maintain a healthy heart and a healthy weight. Consequently, regular exercise helps to reduce the risk of serious illness. Furthermore, it helps to keep your lungs healthy too.

The European Respiratory Society has a fact sheet, that is free for all, about how exercise affects your lungs. It also explains how breathing is influenced by activity. Finally, it discusses the benefits of exercise for people with and without a lung condition. It is called Your Lungs and Exercise.

Are you a chest breather?

Place your left hand on your chest. Now place your right hand on your abdomen. Breathe in and see which hand rises more. If it’s your right hand, you’re breathing using your diaphragm. However, if your left-hand rises more, you are breathing from your chest.

If you’re breathing using your diaphragm, then you’re breathing as nature intended. However, if you’re a chest breather, then you’re not pulling the air into the base of your lungs. Consequently, this shallow breathing will affect your health. It creates tension in your body that can lead to all sorts of everyday problems.

Whether you’re breathing from the diaphragm or chest, you will still benefit from exercising your breathing muscles. Training these muscles with inspiratory muscle training will result in improvements such as breathing strength and stamina. In turn, it will reduce breathing fatigue and you’ll be able to do more, with less effort. So it’s definitely worth trying out our tips to improve breathing. Always check with a healthcare professional first, before starting any form of exercise.

ERS 2018 – POWERbreathe KH2

This year the ERS International Congress is being held in Paris, France. The ERS 2018 (European Respiratory Society) Congress is the world’s biggest meeting of respiratory experts. It is of interest to researchers, clinicians, GPs and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, it provides a scientific and educational programme in respiratory medicine.

ERS 2018

ERS is expecting over 22,000 delegates. They all have the common goal of improving respiratory health across the world; not just Europe. For that reason, it provides hands-on sessions and seminars, as well as, scientific evidence and new medical equipment and devices.

Respiratory Products at ERS 2018

The ERS International Congress includes an official exhibition. In fact, while attending the Congress, over 87% of the delegates will visit this area. The reason being, this is where medical suppliers demonstrate new products and share information, such as new research studies.

POWERbreathe International Ltd. will be exhibiting in Booth G.03. Here delegates will be able to find out more about the POWERbreathe KH2 with Breathe-Link Medic Live Feedback Software.

POWERbreathe KH2

This electronic device delivers ‘gold standard’ respiratory muscle training. Furthermore, it provides instant monitoring and feedback analysis of patients with dyspnoea. Consequently, it is beneficial to patients with COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, neuromuscular disease, Parkinson’s disease and spinal injury.

The KH2 features a Quality Control MIP test to ensure repeatable Maximum Inspiratory Pressure results. It does this by recording the maximum value of three manoeuvres that vary by less than 20%.

The Breathe-Link Medic Live Feedback Software captures, organises and stores data and analysis of a patient’s respiratory muscles’ performance.

Exclusive Offer for ERS 2018

Attendees at this year’s Congress who visit the POWERbreathe booth will receive an exclusive offer. Please visit our Booth C10 to find out more. Terms and Conditions apply.

New Asthma Treatment for Severe Asthma

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), are consulting again on the safety and efficacy of a new asthma treatment. The new treatment, bronchial thermoplasty, is likely to be offered to adults with severe asthma. The procedure involves applying thermal energy (heat) to the inside walls of the airways.

New asthma treatment

Bronchial thermoplasty will take place under sedation or general anaesthetic. Short pulses of radiofrequency energy are applied to the airway wall. Following that, patients will need to attend an additional two sessions, with 3-week intervals, to complete the procedure.

The aim of this new treatment is to reduce the smooth muscle mass lining the airways, decreasing their ability to constrict. Hopes are that by having this procedure, the severity and frequency of severe asthma attacks may decrease. NICE is currently in the process of considering the evidence for this treatment. Additionally, it’s listening to the views of specialist advisers with knowledge of the procedure.

Furthermore, to ensure safety, NICE is recommending that only a multidisciplinary team treat patients. In addition, they recommend that only specialist centres with on-site access to intensive care should carry out the procedure. Finally, they are proposing that only clinicians with experience of bronchial thermoplasty and managing severe asthma should perform the procedure.

As it stands, NICE believe there is adequate evidence to support the use of this new asthma treatment.

Severe asthma

In their consultation document, NICE say that in severe asthma, the lining of the airways becomes inflamed and narrow. Furthermore, this narrows the airways, making it harder for air to pass through. This makes it harder to breathe. And it is this that bronchial thermoplasty aims to tackle.

Complementary treatment for asthma

Research shows there to be an alternative, complimentary asthma treatment for opening up the airways and assist in easier breathing. This treatment is Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT). Simply put, it is breathing muscle training, such as with the POWERbreathe IMT device. It too is clinically proven. Furthermore, it is drug-free.

The research reaches the conclusion that six-months of specific inspiratory muscle training improves inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. It also results in improvement in asthma symptoms, hospitalisations for asthma, visits to the emergency department, absence from school or work, and medication consumption in patients with asthma.

Alternative treatment for asthma – IMT

Inspiratory Muscle Training, such as with POWERbreathe IMT, is easy to use, straight out of the box. Because it is drug-free, there are only minimal precautions and contraindications that the Healthcare Professional needs to be aware of before prescribing IMT.

POWERbreathe IMT is an evidence-based, non-invasive asthma treatment. In fact, it is the amount of medical research behind the rigorous assessment that led to the POWERbreathe Medic being made available for prescription on the NHS. It offers people with asthma a clinically-proven method of reducing symptoms and putting them in control of their asthma.

Research shows that after only 3-weeks of IMT, asthma symptoms improve by up to 75%. Furthermore, patients with asthma experience improvement of symptoms, quality of life and a reduction in the consumption of medication of up to 79%.

In fact, three separate studies show an average 51% reduction in β2-agonist consumption (from 3.9 to 1.6 puffs per day) after IMT. One study also shows a decrease in corticosteroid use ~80%.

Finally, longer observations show that 6-months of IMT reduces absence from school/work (by ~95%) and use of healthcare resources (by ~75%).

S-Index assessment improves inspiratory muscle performance

S-Index stands for Strength-Index. It is one of the POWERbreathe K-Series’ test modes. Its purpose is to calculate inspiratory muscle strength based upon peak inspiratory flow.

Peak Inspiratory Flow (PIF)

We can evaluate improvements in inspiratory muscle strength by monitoring changes in a person’s peak inspiratory flow.

Peak Inspiratory Flow is a measure which reflects the ability of the inspiratory muscles (the muscles we use to breathe in) to contract rapidly and overcome the inherent resistance and elastance of the respiratory system.

Another of the K-Series’ test modes is the measurement of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). In fact, MIP is the most common measure in use for gauging inspiratory muscle strength. It is used as a diagnostic tool and an independent predictor of all-cause mortality.

Purpose of study

Currently, the most common test for assessing inspiratory muscle performance is the maximum ‘quasi-static’ inspiratory pressure (PImax).

However, the K-Series’ S-Index test has since become available for ‘dynamically’ evaluating the maximum inspiratory pressure.

In fact, it is suggested that the S-Index might be more appropriate for measuring inspiratory muscle performance than PImax.

Therefore, this study investigates this premise. It also assesses its reliability and whether an inspiratory muscle warm-up effects strength—index assessment.

Measurement validity of the K-Series

There are, in fact, current studies that have independently verified the measurement validity of the K-Series. Consequently, findings from these previous studies demonstrate its accuracy to measure dynamic inspiratory muscle pressure 1,2.

Therefore, this study feels that a proper assessment and the reliability of the S-Index should be addressed. In particular, it investigates the variability in response to repeated measurements. Furthermore, it evaluates whether an inspiratory muscle warm-up effects strength-index assessment. It is investigating whether using strength-index assessment improves clinical outcomes by reducing the bias effect.

Reliable values of the S-Index

What this study demonstrates is that at least 8 inspiratory manoeuvres are necessary to reach maximum and reliable values of the S-Index. Moreover, it also shows that specific inspiratory muscle warm-up could improve inspiratory muscle performance.

The authors believe this to be the first study to evaluate S-Index reliability in healthy subjects. Furthermore, they believe it to be the first study to investigate the effect of inspiratory warm-up in strength-index assessment.

In conclusion, inspiratory muscle warm-up should be used for detecting the true maximum values of the S-Index to evaluate the performance of inspiratory muscles for any intervention.

Assessment of Maximum Dynamic Inspiratory Pressure >

References

  1. Measurement validity of an electronic inspiratory loading device during a loaded breathing task in patients with COPD
  2. Repeated-Sprint Cycling Does Not Induce Respiratory Muscle Fatigue in Active Adults: Measurements from The POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Trainer 

Russia World Cup team need help with breathing

Following their victory over Spain and defeat by Croatia, news is coming out that the 2018 FIFA Russia World Cup 2018 team are using ammonia to help with their breathing.

Russia World Cup 2018 team sniff ammonia

The World Cup team doctor confirms the team use ammonia to help with bloodflow and breathing. Ammonia is the predominant ingredient in smelling salts, which are available over the counter. Smelling salts only release a small amount of ammonia gas, as they are designed to arouse a person from unconsciousness. Consequently, no adverse health problems are reported.

Ammonia is not on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Prohibited List for 2018. However, for a while now, the sport of professional boxing bans the use of smelling salts.

When you sniff smelling salts, ammonia gas releases and irritates the mucous membranes of your nose and lungs. In turn, this triggers a breathing reflex, causing the respiratory muscles to work faster. This makes the body think it’s working harder and heart rate increases. In turn, you feel you have more ‘power’. However, because of this ‘feeling’ of additional power, it’s thought that sniffing ammonia could actually have a placebo effect. The reason being, if a player feels more powerful, alert and awake after sniffing ammonia, their confidence and self-belief increases. Consequently, an improvement in performance is felt.

Improve breathing strength & stamina

Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a form of resistance training for the breathing muscles. IMT is scientifically proven to increase breathing muscle strength and stamina. Furthermore, breathing fatigue will reduce as a result. As a consequence, sports performance improves. Additionally, performing an inspiratory muscle warm-up prior to a match helps prevent breathlessness from the start. This is especially beneficial for substitutes on the bench as they wait to replace a team-mate on the pitch.

Out of breath when playing football?

It’s no surprise players feel out of breath or tire easily when playing football. They sprint, change direction and cover around 10 kilometres during the 90 minutes of play. In fact, sprinting alone will drive breathing to its highest level, inducing a feeling of extreme breathlessness. This is an issue because players must recover quickly in order to continue contributing to the game.

Rugby & the Beneficial Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training

The nature of the game of rugby involves high and low-intensity action. Also, the physical demands of the game are specific to each player’s positional role. However, despite the player’s position, all need to be aerobically fit. Each must also have a high lactate tolerance and be strong and powerful.

Challenges facing rugby players

Most of the game of rugby is sub-maximal. This means that the intensity at which the player performs increases at a steady rate. Furthermore, this sub-maximal exercise will only work the player up to 85% of their maximum heart rate.

However, integral to the game are intermittent sprints, tackling, scrums, rucks and mauls. These are supra-maximal. And it’s this part of the game that pushes players beyond their maximum limit. Consequently, breathing effort will be a challenge.

The pattern of exertion rugby has on players places extreme demands upon their breathing. This is because these activities are anaerobic and generate high levels of lactic acid. Furthermore, the lactic acid stimulates their breathing to increase. In addition, a unique feature of rugby is the involvement of high-intensity upper body activity. This can induce conflicting demands upon the breathing muscles, which as well as bringing about breathing, are also essential in activities that involve the upper body.

This 2018 study from Brazil reiterates the fact that the respiratory muscles need adequate work to maintain sustained effective breathing in the sport of rugby.

The scientific study

This scientific study set about analysing the effects of high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in 20 amateur rugby players. These players are from the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

For the trial, the amateur players undergo a pulmonary function test, respiratory muscle strength and physical capacity assessment. Researchers then split them into two groups: the IMT group and the control group, each consisting of 10 players. The study has approval from the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro under protocol no. 2398.

Rugby training & conditioning for the trial

During the trial, players begin training with a warm-up by jogging for 5-minutes. They then perform dynamic stretching of the major muscle groups. Following this, the researchers have the players simulate specific moves applied to the game of rugby to improve its fundamentals. These include such moves as passing, blocking, feinting and collective strategic moves. Ultimately, the training session ends with stretching.

Players in the Inspiratory Muscle Training group perform three weekly sessions of an inspiratory muscle training programme, using the POWERbreathe Plus, for 12 consecutive weeks. These sessions are supervised by a physiotherapist and a physical education professional.

The IMT group protocol

This group protocol consists of:

  • 10 minutes’ stretching of the trunk muscles, upper and lower limbs
  • 10-minute inspiratory warm-up by performing a full and vigorous inspiration through the POWERbreathe Plus IMT device
  • A series of 30 repetitions using 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure using the POWERbreathe Plus IMT device. After the fourth training session, the level is increased.

The control group protocol

This group of 10 players perform the same protocol as above, except they do not perform the 30 repetitions of inspiratory muscle training using the POWERbreathe Plus.

Effects of high-intensity IMT in Rugby Players

Results show that the 12-week course of high-intensity POWERbreathe IMT provides significant increases in maximal voluntary ventilation (22%), maximum inspiratory pressure (38%), PEmax (32%), and distance travelled (13%) in the YoYo Test.

Also worthy of note is how physical capacity will be compromised if the respiratory system does not provide sufficient oxygen supply to satisfy the demands. Researchers explain that when the arrival of blood to the respiratory muscles decrease, it experiences fatigue and leads to lactic acid buildup. Consequently, this situation causes a decrease in the strength and resistance of the respiratory muscles.

Results of this trial suggest therefore that the POWERbreathe IMT training protocol provides beneficial, positive effects for rugby players.

The study

Effects of high-intensity Inspiratory Muscle Training in Rugby Players >

Charity Bike Ride Begins at Briançon

Four amateur cyclists from RAF Coningsby Ground System Support Flight are currently training for their 3 Peaks of Briançon Charity Bike Ride. In addition to their cycling training, they are using POWERbreathe IMT, in preparation for the breathing challenges ahead.

Difficulty breathing when cycling

The simple design of a bike will affect the position of the body. And the design of a road bike is made with aerodynamics in mind. For the RAF team, each rider will also make their body aerodynamic too. This means they will be continuously bending forward over the handlebars. This results in the shoulders pulling away from the spine, the rib cage flattening and the ribs descending. In addition, the organs in the abdomen push the diaphragm up. And as the diaphragm is the main breathing muscle, this compression restricts its normal movement. Consequently breathing becomes more difficult.

RAF charity bike ride

The four members of the RAF team are planning to conquer three of the toughest and most gruelling peaks the Alps have to offer. These are the Col d’Izoard, Col du Chaussy and the Col du Galibier. Furthermore, they plan to conquer them in three consecutive days. This will present a challenge for their breathing muscle strength and stamina. And altitude too challenges the breathing muscles, and Briançon is at an altitude of 1,326m (4,350ft). Additionally, their legs will have to cope with cycling many miles uphill. So fitness training beforehand is essential. And this is exactly what the team is doing at present.

In Chris’ post, on the team’s Facebook page, he talks about his latest training ride, saying:

“Well I did it! It was hard work, a struggle towards the end. My legs hurt and my bum hurts which is my own fault. Tested my new Velochampion longs out today, they performed well but no matter how good a pad is, you still need to condition. By the end of the ride, everything hurt, except my lungs. Something that I always used to struggle with but not so much anymore. POWERbreathe.”

The objective of this 70-mile sportive training ride is to beat a Personal Best. And it sounds as though the hills are a challenge, not just for the legs, but also for breathing:

“I myself have a distance PB to beat on Sunday in a 70-mile sportive, and the hills are gonna be a burn on the legs. But hopefully, with the help of our trustee POWERbreathe apparatus, the lungs won’t feel the burn so much.”

Breathing training for charity bike ride

It’s well accepted that the work of breathing during any form of exercise, including cycling, can be high enough to cause the breathing muscles to fatigue. In fact, research has shown that cycling as little as 20km at race pace induces significant fatigue of the breathing muscles.

A research group at Birmingham University shows that inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves cycling performance. IMT is the scientific term for breathing muscle training. IMT is shown to reduce breathing fatigue and improve cycling time trial performance. In fact, improvements of 4.6% are shown. This is equivalent to slicing around 2 minutes off a 40k PB. And this is after just 6-weeks of inspiratory muscle training.

POWERbreathe inspiratory muscle training targets the breathing muscles, strengthening them by around 30-50%, significantly improving performance and helping to eliminate breathing fatigue.

The scientifically proven training regimen for POWERbreathe IMT is to perform 30 breaths in through the device, twice a day. And that is exactly what the RAF team are doing:

“Resting up tomorrow, apart from the lungs, POWERbreathe every day! As ordered 🙂 ”

Breathing tip for a charity bike ride

Warm-up the breathing muscles prior to the start. Using the POWERbreathe IMT device on a reduced load setting will prepare the breathing muscles for the rigours that the ride will bring. In fact, research shows that a standard pre-exercise warm-up routine fails to prepare the breathing muscles for the rigours of exercise.

What is World Asthma Day

Every year the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) organises World Asthma Day. The aim of this awareness day is to reduce asthma prevalence, morbidity and mortality in every corner of the globe. Their first awareness day was held in 1998. And so this year they are celebrating the 20th annual World Asthma Day. And every year they have a theme. The theme for 2018 is “Never too early, never too late. It’s always the right time to address airways disease.”

World Asthma Day 2018

This year’s theme asks both patients and healthcare providers to evaluate asthma symptoms, regardless of the time in that person’s life. In addition, they ask for actions to be taken to ensure a person’s asthma is controlled. For example, writing an Asthma Plan that contains all you need to help control your asthma, such as a list of asthma triggers, is a core part of asthma management.

Asthma triggers

There are many things that may trigger an asthma attack. In fact, anything that irritates the airways and sets off symptoms is considered an asthma trigger. Exercise is one such trigger. Yet evidence shows that people with asthma will benefit from exercise. In fact, there are many world-class athletes, including Paula Radcliffe MBE, that have asthma.

Asthma and exercise

As long as your asthma symptoms are under control then asthma shouldn’t stop you from enjoying these benefits of exercise:

  • Boosts the immune system, reducing the possibility of coughs and colds triggering symptoms
  • Increases bone and muscle strength
  • Improves overall health
  • Improves how well the lungs work, reducing the feeling of being breathless

Asthma treatment

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute explain that asthma is a long-term disease that requires managing. And because there is no cure, the purpose of asthma treatment is to control the disease. This includes two types of medicines:

  1. Long-term control medicines – these help reduce airway inflammation and prevent asthma symptoms.
  2. Quick-relief, or ‘rescue’ medicines – these relieve asthma symptoms that have the potential to flare up.

However, there is also a drug-free therapy that is clinically proven to help reduce asthma symptoms – Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT). Always speak to a medical professional about your medical issues or concerns first.

Natural asthma treatment without drugs

Inspiratory muscle training is a drug-free breathing training intervention for people with dyspnoea (difficult or laboured breathing). It’s not surprising, therefore, that clinical trials are unanimously supportive of IMT in the management of asthma.

In trials, patients with asthma experienced a reduction in their laboured breathing in as little as 3 weeks’ inspiratory muscle training. Furthermore, they felt improvements in their quality of life. In addition, longer-term observations following 3 weeks of IMT were also impressive:

  • Reduces absence from school/work (by ~95%)
  • Reduces the consumption of medication (by ~79%)
  • Symptoms improve by up to 75%

WHO asthma statistics

  • Asthma is a major noncommunicable disease
  • Approximately 235 million people suffer from asthma (2017) which is common among children
  • Medication can control asthma symptoms
  • Asthma management helps people with asthma to enjoy a quality of life
  • Many people have undiagnosed asthma