Russia World Cup team need help with breathing

Following their victory over Spain and defeat by Croatia, news is coming out that the 2018 FIFA Russia World Cup 2018 team are using ammonia to help with their breathing.

Russia World Cup 2018 team sniff ammonia

The World Cup team doctor confirms the team use ammonia to help with bloodflow and breathing. Ammonia is the predominant ingredient in smelling salts, which are available over the counter. Smelling salts only release a small amount of ammonia gas, as they are designed to arouse a person from unconsciousness. Consequently, no adverse health problems are reported.

Ammonia is not on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Prohibited List for 2018. However, for a while now, the sport of professional boxing bans the use of smelling salts.

When you sniff smelling salts, ammonia gas releases and irritates the mucous membranes of your nose and lungs. In turn, this triggers a breathing reflex, causing the respiratory muscles to work faster. This makes the body think it’s working harder and heart rate increases. In turn, you feel you have more ‘power’. However, because of this ‘feeling’ of additional power, it’s thought that sniffing ammonia could actually have a placebo effect. The reason being, if a player feels more powerful, alert and awake after sniffing ammonia, their confidence and self-belief increases. Consequently, an improvement in performance is felt.

Improve breathing strength & stamina

Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a form of resistance training for the breathing muscles. IMT is scientifically proven to increase breathing muscle strength and stamina. Furthermore, breathing fatigue will reduce as a result. As a consequence, sports performance improves. Additionally, performing an inspiratory muscle warm-up prior to a match helps prevent breathlessness from the start. This is especially beneficial for substitutes on the bench as they wait to replace a team-mate on the pitch.

Out of breath when playing football?

It’s no surprise players feel out of breath or tire easily when playing football. They sprint, change direction and cover around 10 kilometres during the 90 minutes of play. In fact, sprinting alone will drive breathing to its highest level, inducing a feeling of extreme breathlessness. This is an issue because players must recover quickly in order to continue contributing to the game.

Metaboreflex & Performance in Elite Female Soccer

ECSS is the European College of Sport Science (ECSS). Part of its purpose is to promote junior scientists and foster state-of-the-art research. And in order to do this, ECSS have created the Young Investigators Award (YIA). This award-winning research, presented in the video, is for Metaboreflex and Performance in Elite Female Soccer: Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training.

Video presentation of ECSS YIA winning research

Metaboreflex & Performance in Elite Female Soccer

This research aims to determine the effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscles oxygenation. It examines this during a maximal exercise tolerance test and on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in professional women football players.

Inspiratory Muscle Training

All participants in the study perform 6-weeks of IMT. The device they use for IMT is the POWERbreathe K5 with Breathe-Link Live Feedback software.

At the end of their 6 weeks’ training, all participants are reevaluated.

Research Findings

The findings show that,

“…only the IMT group present lower deoxyhaemoglobin and total haemoglobin blood concentrations on intercostal muscles concomitantly to an increased oxyhemoglobin and total haemoglobin blood concentrations on vastus lateralis muscle during time-to-exhaustion”

Research Conclusions

Results suggest the potential role of IMT to attenuate inspiratory muscles metaboreflex. Consequently, oxygen and blood supply to limb muscles during high-intensity exercise improves. Furthermore, there is also a potential impact on inspiratory muscle strength, exercise tolerance and sprints performance in professional women football players.

ECSS YIA Award

ECSS presents scientists with the opportunity of entering this prestigious competition for scientific excellence, every year. And it’s at the ECSS annual congress where young scientists present their scientific work, as they compete to win the YIA Award.

Following presentations, members of the ECSS Scientific Board and ECSS Scientific Committee, grant the awards. They base this decision upon an oral and mini-oral presentation for the top ten presentations respectively.

Bruno Archiza is the winner of this 2016 YIA award, and his presentation took place at the 21st annual congress of the ECSS in Vienna.

Football player uses POWERbreathe IMT during recovery

German professional footballer Jan Kirchhoff, playing for Premier League team Sunderland, is back on the football pitch after his knee surgery.

Football injury and fitness

The 3 month recovery period is a time when Jan is not able to train. As a result Jan became concerned about his fitness. But by keeping his breathing strength and stamina in condition he knows that he’ll be in a better position when it comes to returning to play. So Jan took up POWERbreathe K3 Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT).

Football player uses POWERbreathe K3

The POWERbreathe K3 IMT exercises Jan’s breathing muscles, mainly his diaphragm and intercostals. These muscles are difficult to specifically target and train. But not with POWERbreathe IMT. Jan simply breathes in through the device. The POWERbreathe K3 will automatically adapt to Jan’s training requirements. It does this by offering a tapered loading resistance to match the contraction curve of his breathing muscles throughout his entire breath. This enables him to complete a full breath and muscular contraction at an optimal resistance.

Why breathing is a challenge to football players

Football players are likely to cover about 10-12 km during the course of a match. And they’ll likely do it at an average intensity of 75-80% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max.). They’ll also cruise for 30-90 seconds and sprint for 3-5 seconds throughout the 90 minutes of the game.

Most activity during a match will be sub-maximal, but Jan’s intermittent sprints will be supra-maximal. It’s this pattern of exertion that places extreme demands upon breathing because these activities are anaerobic and generate high levels of lactic acid. Lactic acid stimulates breathing to increase as part of a compensatory strategy to overt fatigue of other muscles, such as the legs, which will inevitably impair performance. Following a sprint a footballer’s breathing is driven to its highest level, inducing extreme breathlessness. And if the player is to continue to make an active and effective contribution to the game, their breathing must recover quickly. Inspiratory muscle training with POWERbreathe is proven to help a player recover more quickly.

Why strong breathing muscles are essential to a footballer

Fatigue of the breathing muscles can affect more than running ability, such as flexing the upper body during heading. But strong breathing muscles are also essential for the twisting and flexing movements of the trunk. They also make a contribution to stabilising and turning the body during kicking.

Strengthen breathing muscles with POWERbreathe IMT

POWERbreathe IMT is scientifically proven to improve breathing strength and stamina and reduce breathing muscle fatigue. In fact in tests IMT:

  • Accelerated recovery during repeated sprints by up to 7%
  • Improved inspiratory muscle strength by 31.2%
  • Improved inspiratory muscle endurance by 27.8%
  • Reduced whole body effort during exercise

Jan’s progress (March)

We are in contact with Jan, checking up on his progress, and since writing this blog he says,

“training is going really well. Breathing and football wise.  Just had a new record in each category yesterday.  Feel like I already have some benefit during football.  Thanks for your text and help.”

 

Athletes Do Not Condition Inspired Air More Effectively than Non-athletes

There is a study that aims to assess athletes’ ability to warm and humidify inspired air. This study is published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. It is called, Athletes do not condition inspired air more effectively than non-athletes during hyperpnea.

Endurance athletes’ inspired air

Airway disease is more prevalent in endurance athletes. This is possible because they need to adapt their breathing to cope with large volumes of inspired air. And they need to inspire large volumes of air because of the intense exercise they perform. But the environment they train in may also be relevant.

Study method

The study measures the difference between each athlete’s inhaled and exhaled air temperature. It did this during and after a Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperpnea test (EVH). This is the test that is used to diagnose exercise-induced asthma or exercise-induced bronchospasm. It is a 6 minute test during which the athlete breathes a cold, dry gas at very high ventilation rates.

All 23 athletes in the study attend a laboratory on three occasions. Two of these occasions are for baseline measurements and information. The third is to perform a modified EVH test. This is to measure their inspired and expired air temperatures.

No evidence of improved capacity to condition inspired air

The test results show no evidence of improved capacity to condition inspired air. And by ‘conditioned’ air the study means the athlete’s ability to warm and humidify inspired air. If the study did find evidence, this could suggest an increased bronchial blood flow or another adaptive mechanism. Bronchial blood flow supplies nutrients and oxygen to the cells that constitute the lungs, as well as carrying waste products away from them. Therefore the absence of an adaptive mechanism could contribute to airway damage observed in endurance athletes. This may be that colder but mainly dryer air is penetrating deeper in the lung.

Strategies to reduce impact on airway injury

A pre-exercise warm-up is well known to reduce the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm and exercise-induced asthma. It is thought the reason for this is because of an increase in bronchial blood flow. A warm-up involves performing the athlete’s activity at a slower pace and reduced intensity. It gradually raises the body temperature. Furthermore it increases blood flow to the muscles.

An inspiratory warm-up

It is also beneficial to warm-up the breathing muscles. A scientifically proven way of doing this is with Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT). POWERbreathe is an IMT device that is quick and easy to use. POWERbreathe IMT is performed as part of an athlete’s daily training. But research and trials have also shown it to be beneficial for an inspiratory warm-up. This means simply reducing the breathing load on the POWERbreathe IMT device to a lower setting. Better still the POWERbreathe K3, K4 and K5 with Breathe-Link Live Feedback Software feature an automatic warm-up mode. This automatically sets the optimal resistance for an inspiratory muscle warm-up.

Brentford and Republic of Ireland midfielder suffers EIA

POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) could help Brentford and Republic of Ireland midfielder Alan Judge who’s recently been reprimanded by the Football Association after breaching doping regulations for consuming higher levels of his asthma medication than is permitted. Judge is one of many sports people that suffer with exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and uses an inhaler. Endurance sports, such as long-distance running, cross-country skiing and cycling are the most likely activities to cause problems for people with exercise-induced asthma. A Case Report published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine looked at Inspiratory Muscle Training: a simple cost-effective treatment for inspiratory stridor, which described the support given to a British elite athlete in the build-up to the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. Complaining of breathing symptoms during high intensity training which resulted in a reduction in performance and premature cessation of training, the athlete undertook a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea challenge to test for her exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Following consultation with a sports physician and physiologist, the athlete was diagnosed with inspiratory stridor and an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) intervention was implemented. The IMT intervention required 30 loaded breaths twice daily using POWERbreathe five times per week for 11 weeks. The athlete reported a precipitous fall in symptoms and was able to complete high intensity training without symptoms. If you suffer from exercise induced asthma (EIA) then breathing training with POWERbreathe could help you train in a safe and productive manner and because it is drug-free won’t incur scrutiny from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

cheap nfl jerseys

and fellow race goers waiting for the arrivals at the finish line frankly,to support such measures To cheap nfl jerseys ensure that these diseases that devastate the lives of millions of people are not further neglected during times of crisis and insiders fear that it may cause the company overall revenue to slump in the cheap oakleys following quarter. It was not clear whether there were passengers on board. I thought they” Coming this fall. Wilkerson. and time, Lo que aprendas lo recordaras. Moreover, Markups can range from 20 50% or more for smaller denomination coins such as wheat cents. KNDI expects to initiate trial programs in 2 to 3 of these cities.
in particular according to the MBTA.” said the letter by Arthur Herbert The specific puppies shown honor in army or marine experienced and / or military a wearing military tops.

Lack of asthma testing could risk careers of young footballers

The nature of an athlete means that they will always push their body to the limit, with breathing demand increasing as a result.

Dr Kippelen, Senior Lecturer (Exercise Physiology) of Brunel University London suggests that youth football players could be jeopardising their health and sporting potential because they aren’t getting tested for asthma early enough in their career.

Professional senior footballers and Team GB athletes are tested for asthma, so Dr Kippelen is asking why not the same for younger players.

Most activity during a football match is sub-maximal, but intermittent sprints are supra-maximal. This pattern of exertion places extreme demands upon a footballer’s breathing because these activities are anaerobic and generate high levels of lactic acid. Lactic acid stimulates breathing to increase as part of a compensatory strategy to overt fatigue of other muscles, such as the legs, which inevitably will impair performance.

POWERbreathe IMT (Inspiratory Muscle Training) would be a useful addition to youth football training as not only will it help to alleviate the demand and stress on their lungs by improving the strength and stamina of their breathing muscles, but also because it’s drug-free it can be used by people with asthma, and in studies IMT improved symptoms of asthma by up to 75% in 3 weeks.

Read article, Lack of asthma testing could risk the careers of young footballers

 

Non-Asthma Related Breathing Problems In Athletes

This BASES Expert Statement looks into exercise respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing, tight chest, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath and coughing which are commonly reported by athletes.

These non-specific symptoms need to be assessed in order to confirm or eliminate the presence of cardio-pulmonary causes.

There is a high prevalence – 70% – of asthma and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in sports with high breathing requirements, and it has been assumed that exercise-induced respiratory symptoms in these athletes is due to asthma or exercise-induced-asthma (EIA).

Symptoms however are misleading and this Expert Statement looks at these differential causes of exercise respiratory symptoms: Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction (EILO) and Dysfunctional Breathing.

Interventions are then discussed which include breathing pattern retraining and inspiratory muscle training and finally conclusions are made.

You can read the full Expert Statement here, Assessment and Management of Non-asthma Related Breathing Problems in Athletes.

Proper Breathing – POWERbreathe Can Help

Your primary breathing muscle is your diaphragm; a dome shaped thin sheet of muscle separating your rib cage from your abdomen.

When you inhale this dome shape flattens out as your diaphragm contracts, pushing down on the contents of your abdomen (your gut) and increasing the space in your chest cavity.

Because your gut has to go somewhere as your diaphragm descends, it forces it down and out and your tummy expands. Because of this, this natural, healthy and proper way of breathing is often referred to as abdominal breathing or diaphragmatic breathing.

If you do already have a good breathing technique it can often go awry when you start exercising as you demand more air and your breathing increases to compensate. This is when your breathing technique can change from good diaphragmatic breathing to reverse breathing i.e. pulling in your tummy as you breathe in and letting your tummy go as you breathe out.

Because your diaphragm is a muscle, you can train it like any other muscle to become stronger and helping you retain that good diaphragmatic breathing even when pushed to your limit. POWERbreathe targets your inspiratory muscles – not only your diaphragm but also your intercostal muscles, the tiny muscles in between your ribs, which are recruited during a slightly forced respiration.

You’ll notice when training with POWERbreathe that you have to work harder to breathe in. This is the effect of resistance training acting on your inspiratory muscles. When breathing out, POWERbreathe offers no resistance because when you exhale normally, your diaphragm and intercostals naturally relax and move back up, pushing the air from your lungs.

Effects of IMT on Resistance to Fatigue of Respiratory Muscles in Exercise

EliteVelo Kalas Sportswear Cycling Race Team by Richard Fox Photography

EliteVelo Kalas Sportswear Cycling Race Team using POWERbreathe Plus IMT (above)
PHOTO: Richard Fox Photography

STUDY:

Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Resistance to Fatigue of Respiratory Muscles During Exhaustive Exercise
M. O. Segizbaeva, N. N. Timofeev, Zh. A. Donina, E. N. Kur’yanovich, N. P. Aleksandrova

This study, published in Body Metabolism and Exercise – Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (Volume 840, 2015, pp 35-43) concluded that IMT elicits resistance to the development of inspiratory muscles fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

PURPOSE:

To assess the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on resistance to fatigue of the diaphragm, parasternal, sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles in healthy humans during exhaustive exercise.

The sternocleidomastoid muscle flexes the neck and helps with the oblique rotation of the head. Also, the muscle helps in forced inspiration while breathing, and it raises the sternum. As for forced inspiration, the muscle also works in concert with the scalene muscles in the neck. The scalene muscles are lateral vertebral muscles that begin at the first and second ribs and pass up into the sides of the neck. There are three of these muscles. (SOURCE: Healthline.com)

CONCLUSION:

“The study found that in healthy subjects, IMT results in significant increase in MIP (+18 %), a delay of inspiratory muscle fatigue during exhaustive exercise, and a significant improvement in maximal work performance. We conclude that the IMT elicits resistance to the development of inspiratory muscles fatigue during high-intensity exercise.”

Read Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Resistance to Fatigue of Respiratory Muscles During Exhaustive Exercise

Check out more Inspiratory Muscle Training Research here >

Discover POWERbreathe used in Research here >

What causes exercise-induced asthma?

The reason why asthma symptoms may be brought on during exercise has not been completely established but it is thought that because breathing becomes heavy and we breathe faster when we exercise, the linings of our airways narrow and dry out. Also weather conditions and allergies, such as an allergy to pollen, can also trigger asthma-like symptoms when exercising.

Recognising exericse-induced asthma (EIA)

Diagnosis is often made after symptoms, such as wheezing and a tight chest, are experienced during exercise, but this can result in either over-diagnosis, where athletes report symptoms but DO NOT have narrowing of the airways, or under-diagnosis where athletes who’re asymptomatic (showing no symptoms) DO have narrowing of the airways which affects their performance.

The scenarios above are supported in studies where elite athletes have been screened and shown to have EIA, such as reported by British Olympic Teams in the 2012 Olympics where it found that 25% of Team GB suffers from exercise-induced asthma. And at the 1996 Olympic games 20% of athletes reported asthma upon exercising.

Why screen for EIA?

The main reason is because exercise-induced asthma may be detrimental to an athlete’s performance, as it’s already been shown to reduce exercise capacity and running speed in colder environments which will not only affect an athlete during training but also during competition.

Treatment of EIA

Both pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are currently successfully used to treat EIA, and studies have also highlighted the benefits of adjunctive intervention. POWERbreathe Inspiratory Muscle Training can be used as an adjunctive intervention, not only for daily training, but also as a respiratory warm-up prior to exercise.

Read more about Respiratory Disorders in endurance athletes in our blog.

And here’s an interesting article that looks at Pollen and Exercise Induced Asthma >